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Revealed detail of virus
suggests drug strategy

Katze and Josset

Scientists studying a new virus that causes severe breathing distress and kidney failure have discovered that it elicits a distinctive airway cell response. Their findings, published in mBio, predict that certain currently available compounds might treat the Human Coronavirus-Erasmus Medical Center, which first appeared April 2012 in the Middle East. The researchers caution that their lab and computer predictions would need to be tested to see if the drugs work clinically. Lead author and UW virologist Laurence Josset conducted the research in the lab of senior author Michael Katze, UW professor of microbiology. The project was funded in part by the National Institutes of Health, contract HHSN272200800060C and grant U54AI081680. Read more.

IMPROVING CARE FOR COMBAT VETERANS

Dr. David TaubenAn organization of combat-wounded veterans and recipients of the Purple Heart has awarded UW’s Division of Pain Medicine a five-year, $500,000 grant to develop technologies to improve care for veterans suffering chronic pain, post-traumatic stress and traumatic brain injury. The aim is to better equip healthcare providers to reduce the risk of veteran suicides and deaths. Dr. David Tauben, UW clinical associate professor, is interim chief of the Division of Pain Medicine and medical director of the UW Center for Pain Relief, Anesthesia & Pain Medicine. Read more.

ASSOCIATIONS OF COMPUTER-AIDED MAMMOGRAPHY

Dr. Joann ElmoreFrom 2001 to 2006, the prevalence of computer-aided detection (CAD) during screening mammography increased from 3.6 percent to 60.5 percent. A recent study of Medicare enrollees shows that CAD is associated with increased incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ, as well as with the diagnosis of invasive breast cancer at earlier stages. It was not, however, associated with a difference in invasive breast-cancer incidence. Dr. Joann Elmore, professor of medicine and epidemiology, co-wrote about the findings in the Annals of Internal Medicine. Read more.

FUMES TURN GOOD CHOLESTEROL BAD

Michael RosenfeldDiesel emissions can turn helpful cholesterol into a form that could clog arteries and lead to other health concerns, reports a study co-authored by Michael Rosenfeld, UW professor of environmental and occupational health sciences. Mice exposed to diesel emissions over a two-week time span saw oxidative damage in the blood and liver, which could exacerbate atherosclerosis. “The biggest surprise was ... one week of breathing clean, filtered air was not enough to reverse the damage," Rosenfeld said. Read more.

NEW GUIDELINES TO TREAT C. DIFFICILE

Dr. Christina SurawiczDr. Christina Surawicz, UW professor of gastroenterology, is lead author of new practice guidelines to diagnose, treat and prevent Clostridium difficile infections. The guidelines were published in the American Journal of Gastroenterology. Read more.

INFECTION-FIGHTER? NOT ALWAYS

Lalita RamakrishnanTumor necrosis factor – normally an infection-fighting substance produced by the body – can actually heighten susceptibility to tuberculosis if its levels are too high. UW TB researchers unravel this conundrum in a report, “Tumor necrosis factor dually mediates resistance and susceptibility to mycobacteria through induction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species,” in Cell. Lalita Ramakrishnan, UW professor of microbiology, medicine and immunology, was one of the study’s authors.Read more.


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